Logistician’s ABC is intended as a small help for beginner logisticians. Below you will find a brief summary of how goods are moved from point A to point B and what means of transport are used.
Transport companies can be broadly divided into two large groups: forwarding companies and carriers.
A forwarding company is a company that organizes transport, employing, as a rule, a large number of people engaged in transportation or forwarders. However, the company itself may not have any means of transport. Freight forwarders communicate with customers, offering them the most suitable transport solution for the delivery of goods. By seeing the movement of goods only on a computer screen, a forwarding company can move thousands of tons of goods a year. The task of the company’s logistician is to organize the timely and loss-free delivery of goods. The ordered goods must arrive at the correct unloading place in the correct quantity at the specified time.
Carriers are transport companies that own cars and that transport goods specifically from point A to point B. The carriers have a license for international transport and are members of the ERAA (Association of Estonian Road Carriers), where the transport company receives the necessary papers for international transport, such as TIR Carnet booklets, road permits, CEMT permits, etc.
Many different types of trucks and trailers are used in transport; the most common types and their capacity are described below.
Fifth-wheel tractor with semi-trailer:
Fifth-wheel tractors with a semi-trailer have a maximum weight of 40 tons and can carry up to 24 tons of trailers. The trailer can hold 33 euro pallets or 26 FIN pallets. Capacity 85 m³.
The internal dimensions of the semi-trailer are 13.6 x 2.45 x 2.7m
Especially suitable for transporting pallet goods.
Trucks with full and medium axle trailers:
While a semi-trailer usually holds 33-34 EUR per pallet and 85 cbm each, a car with a built-in van and trailer can hold approx. 38 EUR per pallet and 112 cbm each. A full trailer is suitable for transporting light pallets and is the most preferred way of transporting so-called “bulk goods”, under which qualify pillows, blankets, wool, upholstered furniture, etc.
Capacity 112 m³.
A full trailer can hold 38 euro pallets or 30 FIN pallets.
Permitted load capacity up to 24000 kg.
The internal widths of trailers are usually 2.45 m, and the heights are 2.9-3.0 m.
Goods can be transported in containers both by land (road and rail) and by sea. If at least two modes of transport are used to transport a container, it is called combined or multimodal transport.
In maritime transport, the price of container transport and space in TEUs (20ft container equivalent unit) is taken into account, which indicates a place of a 20-foot container on board. A 40-foot container equals 2 TEUs.
The various documents required for trade are as follows:
papers issued by the consignor
export documents of the country of departure
CMR – international waybill
As the Republic of Estonia joined the European Union in May 2004, customs controls and the need to draw up both export and import declarations within the EU also disappeared. In the case of intra-EU transport, it is now sufficient for the goods to be accompanied by:
CMR – international waybill.
Packing slip and invoice (optional as they can also be sent electronically)
Certain groups of goods (e.g., alcohol, dangerous goods, etc.) also require special documents.
The papers issued by the consignor certainly include the invoice needed to determine the customs value and other documents or special permits certifying the quality of the goods.
The export document of the country of departure is the customs export declaration issued by the consignor unless otherwise agreed with the transport company. NB! The third page of the export declaration made by the consignor must be returned to the consignor, on the basis of which he/she can prove that the goods have left the country and he/she does not have to pay VAT.